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中国考生常见的英语语法错误  [复制]

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发表于 2020/12/29 13:44:22

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语法是对语言进行研究后,系统地总结归纳出来的一系列语言规则,对于我们理解和规范使用英语是很重要的。对于雅思考试来说,在口语和写作里面就明确规定了,语法是一个重要的评分点。语法对于听力和阅读来说也是很重要的,例如,阅读中会有很多长难句,句子结构的正确划分,是我们理解的一个重要前提,否则,就算句中没有生词,有时理解上会跟作者表达的意思有所偏差。本文将从句子层面总结中国学生常犯的语法错误。
主谓不一致

  主谓一致指的是谓语动词在人称和数上要和主语保持一致,例如,在一般现在时中,主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词也要用相应的第三人称单数形式。在写句子时,应注意句子的主语是什么,切记勿把修饰语或从句中的名词当句子的主语。

  误把修饰语中的名词当主语

  例 1:The books bought by the man was first published in 1970.

  改:The books bought by the man were first published in 1970.

  注解:这句话的主语为 the books,是复数,而不是修饰语 bought by the man 中的 the man,所以谓语动词应为 were,而不是 was。

  Of 结构的名词短语

  例 2:The doors of the room was broken.

  改:The doors of the room were broken.

  注解:如果主语是“...of...”的词组,谓语的形式需要和“of”之前的名词保持一致。这句话的主语不是所有格 of 后面的 the door,核心的名词是 the doors,所以谓语动词应用复数形式的were。

  从句当主语

  例 3:How governments will address global warming have attracted the attention of the world.

  改:How governments will address global warming has attracted the attention of the world.

  注解:这句话的主语是个主语从句(How…warming),而不是从句的主语 governments,主语从句可以看作是一件事情,所以谓语动词形式应用单数形式。

  定语从句的主谓一致

  例 4:He is a boy who like reading.

  改:He is a boy who likes reading.

  注解:定语从句中的关系代词是用来取代先行词的,在单复数上应与先行词保持一致,所以原句中的从句谓语动词 like 应与先行词 a boy 在形式上保持一致,故 like 改为 likes.

  句子缺少谓语动词

  例1:On the seashore, some people playing volleyball and some lying in the sun.

  改:On the seashore, some people are playing volleyball and some are lying in the sun.

  注解:谓语动词是不可以直接由分词来充当。

  例2:The answer still unknown.

  改:The answer is still unknown. 或 The answer remains unknown.

  注解:原句中的still是个副词,unknown 为形容词,所以少了谓语动词。

  忽视平行结构

  如果几个句子成分在内容和功能上相似时,我们需要让它们在形式上面保持一致,例如名词对名词,从句对从句。

  例1:The best ways to maintain health are working out, taking a good rest and have a balanced diet.

  改:The best ways to maintain health are working out, taking a good rest and having a balanced diet.

  注解:这里的 working out,taking a rest 和 having a balanced diet 是并列的表语,形式上应保持一致,全部用动名词形式。

  例2:Your semester grade is based not only on how well you do on each test, but also how you participate in class.

  改:Your semester grade is based not only on how well you do on each test, but also on how you participate in class.

  注解:这句话的并列结构应为based not only on…but also on…。这里并列的对象为 on how well you do on each test 和 on how you participate in class,所以 but also 后的 on 是不可以省去的。

  双谓语

  英语语法规定,除非有连词存在,否则一个句子基本上只能有一个谓语动词,但是由于汉语句子里是可以允许多个动词存在,所以这是中国学生最常犯的一个错误。

  There be 句型后出现动词原形

  例1:There is an old man live in that room.

  改:There is an old man living in that room.或There is an old man who lives in that room.

  注解:There be 句型中的 be 动词已经是句子的谓语动词了,所以后面是不可以再直接出现谓语动词,可改成分词或从句。

  动词原形做主语

  例2:Play football is his favorite.

  改:Playing football is his favorite.

  注解:动词原形是不可以直接充当主语,需要改成相应的名词或动名词形式。

  句子做主语

  例3:The earth is round is obvious

  改:It is obvious that the earth is round.

  注解:一句话是不可以直接做主语的,需要加连词,改成主语从句。

  两句话直接用逗号隔开

  例4:He is a student,she is also a student.

  改:He is a student. She is also a student. 或 He is a student and she is also a student.

  注解:句子是以句号结束的,句号里面的句子不可以有两个谓语动词存在,有连词存在除外。

  从句使用错误

  从句缺少连词

  例1:The fact, he stole the book, surprised me.

  改:The fact that he stole the book surprised me.

  注解:原句表达的是同位语从句的意思,而同位语从句的连词that是不可以省略的,所以应加上that,而不是用逗号隔开。

  一个从句出现两个连词

  例2:It is obvious that how he solved the problem.

  改:It is obvious that he solved the problem. 或 It is obvious how he solved the problem.

  注解:原句中只有一个主语从句,但却出现两个连词,所以可以根据说话人想表达的意思,删去一个连词。

  从句单独成一句话

  例3:He bought many books. Because he likes reading.

  改:He bought many books because he likes reading.

  注解:从句是不可以单独成一句话的,需要有主句存在。像while这样的连词,也是一样,所以也不能直接说While books account for 14%.

  误把副词当连词

  例4:He is a student, however, she a teacher.

  改:He is a student. However, she a teacher.

  注解:有些学生会把一些诸如however,meanwhile, thus这样的副词,当做是连词来使用,直接连接两个句子,这是错误的。当不确定某个词的词性是需要查阅一下词典。

  从句少谓语动词

  例5:Museums are places where visitors experiencing local cultures.

  改:Museums are places where visitors can experience local cultures.

  注解:从句本质上也是个句子变化而来的,所以是不能缺少谓语动词的,experiencing是分词形式,属于非谓语动词,所以原句是错的。

  分词使用错误

  在使用分词时要注意的就是它的逻辑主语,当分词位于句首作状语时,逻辑主语需与句子主语一样;其次需要注意的是应该用现在分词还是过去分词。分词与逻辑主语是主动关系时用现在分词;被动则用过去分词。

  逻辑主语不一致

  例1:Waiting for the bus, a bike hit me.

  改:Waiting for the bus, I was hit by a bike.

  注解:原句分词 waiting 的逻辑主语是 I,而不是 a bike,所以若分词结构不变,主句只能改成I做主语。当然,这个句子也可以改成状语从句 When I was waiting for the bus, a bike hit me.

  现在分词与过去分词用混

  例2:Giving another chance, he would do better.

  改:Given another chance, he would do better.

  注解:原文中的he应该是被给机会,而不是给别人机会,所以为被动,应该成过去分词。

  结语:在我们写文章碰到谓语动词时,应句子是否有谓语动词,谓语动词是否满足主谓一致,是否出现双谓语。写从句时,需要检查连词是够选择正确,还有从句的结构是否完整。用分词是,需要注意逻辑主语是否一致,现在和过去分词的选择是够正确。

希望以上内容能对大家有所帮助

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发表于 2021/06/03 16:44:16

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